Biotechnology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 30 – NIOS

Biotechnology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 30 – NIOS

Biotechnology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 30 - NIOS


  1. Name three different kinds of microorganisms used in the manufacture of industrial products.- Fungi, yeast, bacteria
  2. Name three products obtained in industries by using microorganisms.
    Ans. Alcohol / antibiotics / curd / cheese / vitamins / vaccines/ biogas
  3. Name two alcohols produced through fermentation by yeast.- Ethanol / Butanol / Glycerol
  4. Name the two methods of inoculation of yeast in the medium.
    Ans. Support growth system and suspended growth system
  5. Match the items given in columns A with those given in column B.
    Column A Column B
    1. Bioreactor (a) Butanol
    2.Steaming under pressure (b)
    3. Fermentation tank Alcohol (c) Autoclave
    Ans. 1-b, 2-c, 3-a


  1. Name the bacterium responsible for curdling of milk.- Lactobacillus
  2. Who discovered antibiotic?- Alexander Fleming
  3. What do you mean by second generation vaccines?
    Ans. Vaccines produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology
  4. Which was the first vitamin to be produced by fermentation?- Vitamin C
  5. Which bacteria cause the production of biogas?- Methanogenic bacteria


  1. Define genetic engineering.
    Ans. Construction and use of novel DNA molecules obtained by recombinant DNA technology.
  2. What is a clone?
    Ans. Clone is a collection of genetically identical cells obtained by asexual division of a cell.
  3. What do you mean by the term recombinant DNA?
    Ans. When a fragment of foreign DNA is inserted in DNA of a phage or plasmid, DNA of the latter is called r-DNA.
  4. Where are plasmids found?- In bacteria
  5. Why are restriction enzymes called “molecular scissors”?
    Ans. Because they can cut specific sequences of DNA
  6. Name the enzyme which joins DNA fragments.- ligase
  7. What is a clonal vector?
    Ans. A phage or plamid which can carry foreign DNA and divide along withthe bacterium whose part it is.
  8. What do you mean by transgenic organism?

  9. Name any two proteins and ,
    two enzymes obtained by recombinant DNA technology.
    Ans. (i) Insulin, Growth hormone (ii) Proteases, Amylases
  10. How is recombinant DNA technology useful for pharmaceutical companies?
    Ans. Antibiotics, vaccines and proteins of clinical value can be manufactured
  11. Name any two diseases for which bioengineered vaccines have already been developed.
    Ans. Rabies and hepatitis B


  1. Define the term transgenic.
    Ans. An organism containing foreign DNA in its genome
  2. Name the gall producing bacterium and the plasmid which can be conveniently used to produce transgenics.
    Ans. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and T1 plasmid.
  3. What is bioremediation?
    Ans. Bioremediation is removal of pollutants in the environment by the use of genetically engineered bacteria.


  1. What causes the alteration of normal functioning of a gene ?- Mutation
  2. Name two single gene disorders in human beings.
    Ans. Haemophilia, Sickle cell anaemia, SCID (Any two)
  3. State which cells have a low count in Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency (SCID).
    Ans. B-cells and T-cells
  4. Define gene therapy.
    Ans. Replacement and alteration of defective gene is called gene therapy.


  1. State the two approaches to human gene therapy.
    Ans. Somatic and Germ line cells
  2. Name the three categories of somatic cell gene therapy.
    Ans. In-vivo gene therapy, Ex-vivo gene therapy and Anti-sense gene therapy
  3. Name any two genetic diseases that can be treated by somatic gene therapy.
    Ans. Thalassamia, certain types of cancer
  4. What is the direct delivery of the corrected gene into the tissue of the patientby the use of Adenovirus called?
    Ans. In-vivo gene therapy


  1. Define biotechnology.
  2. How are alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation? Mention the steps inthe process.
  3. How can you make cheese and curd on a large scale?
  4. What are antibiotics? Name five antibiotics and their sources.
  5. How are different generations of vaccines produced?
  6. Describe the steps in the production of biogas and mention the precautionsto be taken.
  7. Enumerate in a sequence the steps in recombinant DNA technology.
  8. Describe the uses of genetic engineering.
  9. How can a transgenic animal be obtained?
  10. Write a note on bioremediation.
  11. Define the term gene therapy. Under what condition does it become necessaryto opt for such a therapy ?
  12. What is meant by human somatic gene therapy? How does it differ from thegerm line gene therapy? Which of the two have been successful so far and why?
  13. Discuss in brief the different types of somatic gene therapy.
  14. Give the cause, symptoms and treatment of haemorrhagic dengue fever.
  15. Give full form of STD.
  16. Mention any two sympotms of syphilis.
  17. State the means by which we may prevent and cure gonorrhoea.
  18. What does the term AIDS stand for?
  19. Write four possible symptoms of AIDS.
  20. Mention three general points which may control sexually transmitted diseases.

NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans

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