Coordination & Control : The Nervous & Endocrine Systems | 12th Class Biology Q Ans Lesson 17 – NIOS

Coordination & Control : The Nervous & Endocrine Systems | 12th Class Biology Q Ans Lesson 17 – NIOS

Coordination & Control : The Nervous & Endocrine Systems | 12th Class Biology Q Ans Lesson 17 - NIOS


  1. With the help of a flow chart write down the basic components of the nervous system in the space given below.
  2. Name the ganglia which
    (a) forms the brain- supraoesophageal ganglion
    (b) lies below the oesophagus and is joined to brain.- sub oesophageal ganglion
  3. Which part of nervous system of cockroach can be compared to our spinal cord though our spinal cord is dorsal and this part of nervous system of cockroach in ventral
    Ans. Ventral nerve cord
  4. Name the main parts of the brain.
    Ans. Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, thalamus and hypothalamus
  5. Mention the one functions each of :
    (i) Cerebrum -intelligence/thinking/reasoning/memory
    (ii) Cerebellum – balance/muscular coordination
    (iii) Medulla oblongata – involuntary actions
    (iv) Hypothalamus -homeostasis
  6. What are the
    (i) Gray matter – composed of neuron cell bodies
    (ii) white matter made of?
    White matter – composed of axon fibres
  7. Name the fluid in the cavities of the brain.- Cerebrospinal fluid


  1. What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
    Ans. Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
  2. Name the specific subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system concerned with the following:
    (i) Slowing down heart beat – parasympathetic nervous system
    (ii) Increasing salivary secretion – parasympathetic nervous system
    (iii) Dilatation of the pupil – sympathetic nervous system
    (iv) Increasing intestinal peristalsis – parasympathetic nervous system
    (v) Muscle contraction of the urinary bladder giving the feeling the need for
    urination. – parasympathetic nervous system
  3. Why is the peripheral nervous system called so?
    Ans. because it connects the periphery (surface) of the body
  4. State the alternative terms for sensory and motor nerves.
    Ans. sensory = afferent, motor = efferen


  1. Given below are a few examples of reflexes. Write against each, the categoryof reflex, whether simple or conditioned.
    (i) Knee jerk – Simple
    (ii) Salivation on seeing a favorite dish – conditioned
    (iii) Tying of shoe laces while talking – conditioned
    (iv) Closing of eyelids if a strong beam of light is flashed across – Simple
    (vi) Mistaking a coiled rope as snake if you happen to step on it in darkness- conditioned


  1. State the function of the following parts of the eye:
    (i) Iris – contracts and dilates pupil
    (ii) Ciliary muscles – helps in near vision/contracts to make lens thicker
    (iii) Pupil – controls amount of light entering the eye
    (iv) Vitreous humour – maintains shape of the eye ball and protects retina
    (v) Retina – produces nerve impulses into the optic nerve
  2. Name the following:
    (i) Area of sharp vision in the eye – yellow spot
    (ii) The kind of lens used for correcting near-sightedness – concave lens
    (iii) The condition in which the lens of the eye turns opaque – cataract
    (iv) The capacity of eye to focus objects at different distances – accommodation


  1. Which part of the ear is involved when:
    (i) a gymnast performs various balancing feats. – vestibule
    (ii) you hear a song. – cochlea
  2. Name the following :
    (i) The part into which the sound waves are directed by the ear pinna.- auditory meateus
    (ii) The kind of balance with which the semi-circular canals are concerned.- static balance
    (iii) Any two sensations felt through free nerve endings in the skin.
    Ans. touch/pressure/warmth/cold/ …


  1. Name the following
    (i) The organ in the neck on the trachea close to which thyroid is located- larynx
    (ii) The condition caused due to oversecretion of thyroxin- cretinism
    (iii) The hormone concerned with facing dangers- adrenaline
    (iv) The condition of passing much glucose in the urine- diabetes mellitus
    (v) The source gland of ADH- posterior pituitary
  2. What are pheromones?
    Ans. Pheromone is a secretion from one individual that is given out into the environment and which elicits a response in other members of the same species.


  1. Name the two divisions of the nervous system?
  2. What is gray matter?
  3. Name the chemical involved in the transmission of nerve impulse across asynapse.
  4. Give two examples of sensory nerves.
  5. Name the respective areas of the retina concerned with best vision and no vision.
  6. What is the role of the eustachian tube in the ear?
  7. Name the hormone and its source glands, whose deficiency leads to diabetesinsipidus.
  8. What are pheromones?
  9. Name and explain the event that happens immediately when a nerve fibre getsstimulated?
  10. Are the endocrine glands and the ductless glands one and the same thing? Giveone example.
  11. Describe any one example of condition reflex in the humans.
  12. List the functions of medulla oblongata.
  13. Differentiate between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  14. What are the two principal tasks of insulin?
  15. Explain the following terms: (i) synapse (ii) stimulus and (iii) impulse
  16. Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the bones inside the middle ear.
  17. Write short notes on the following :
    (i) myopia
    (ii) taste buds
    (iii) accommodation of the eye
  18. How do sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems act differently on
    (i) pupil of the eye, and (ii) urinary bladder?
  19. Draw a labelled diagram of the cross section of the spinal cord and the nervous pathway of a simple reflex concerned with it.
  20. Explain the role of ciliary muscles in our eyes
  21. Taking the example of thyroxine secretion, explain what is meant by feedback mechanism?

NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans

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