Genetics and Society : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 24 – NIOS

Genetics and Society : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 24 – NIOS

Genetics and Society : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 24 - NIOS


  1. Name any two recent techniques in genetics.
    Ans. Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology, gene cloning, DNA fingerprinting (any two).
  2. Define gene cloning
    Ans. A technique of producing many identical copies of a particular gene.
  3. What is a gene bank ?
    Ans. A collection of all the genes of any human or genes of any other organisms in various clones of bacteria.


  1. What is the popular term for recombinant DNA technology?
    Ans. Genetic engineering.
  2. What is meant by DNA splicing?
    Ans. Joining of two pieces of DNA belonging to different species.
  3. What is a plasmid and why is it called a vector for genetic engineering?
    Ans. Plasmid is a separate round piece of DNA found in bacteria. It is used to carry desired gene from a particular organism into bacteria.


  1. Use the example of Bt crops to state importance of transgenic crops.
    Ans. Transgenic crop like Bt crops reduce the need for use of insecticides which are toxic to humans and other animals.
    Due to worries of (i) Bt crop evolving resistance (ii) non target species
    feeding on Bt crops may die (iii) production of super weeds.
  2. What is a cry protein?
    Ans. Cry protein produced by Bt crop causes toxicity or poisoning when it
    enters the pest stomach killing the pest
  3. Exploiting a biological resource of another country without being authorised is called
    Ans. Biopiracy
  4. When and why was the biopatent act adopted in India?
    Ans. 1970
  5. What is the duration of a patent for pharmaceutical products in India?
    Ans. 20 years


  1. Define genome.
    Ans. Collective term for the full set of genes of an organism.
  2. What is genomics?
    Ans. Science of analysis of genes in the DNA of an organism relating each gene to its function.
  3. What is the use of genomics?
    Ans. Helps to identifying defective genes so that correction may be possible by gene therapy.
  4. Why should a genetic counsellor have good knowledge of genetics?
    Ans. Because the counsellor has to advise regarding the possibility of genetic disorder in the next generation.
  5. Expand the abbrenation PCR.
    Ans. In the technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA polymeraseenzyme is used repeatedly for making many copies of a small fragment of DNA. Thus polymerase chain reactionor PCR helps in making many copies of a small amount of DNA.
  6. Why is the tehnique DNA fingerprinting named so?
    Ans. In 1984, Alec Jeffreys, a geneticist invented a technique which could distinguish the DNA of a person from that of another and called this technique genetic fingerprinting or DNA fingerprinting. This technique is now used for scientific investigation ofcrime. For example identifying correctly the accused in rape or murder or to solve paternity disputes


  1. Name the three eras in the history of genetics.
  2. Define gene cloning. What is the usefulness of a gene bank?
  3. Give the various steps of recombinant DNA technology.
  4. What are the benefits of genetic engineering?
  5. What are transgenics? Give examples of a transgenic microbe, plant andanimal.
  6. Define genomics
  7. Draw and explain a pedigree chart.
  8. What is genetic counselling and why is it important?
  9. What is DNA fingerprinting? Justify that it is the foolproof tecnique for sortingout paternity issues.
  10. List the steps of Polymerase chain reaction.
  11. What are Bt crops? What are the benefits and fearns related to their use?
  12. Write notes on (i) Biopatent (ii) Biopiracy and (iii) Necessity for a biosafety protocol

NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans

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Himanshu Kumar

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