Immunobiology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 31 – NIOS

Immunobiology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 31 – NIOS

Immunobiology : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 31 - NIOS


  1. Who is considered as the father of immunobiology?- Edward Jenner
  2. What are the three main functions of immunological defence?
    Ans. Broadly immunological defence serves three functions :
    (i) Defence against microorganisms.
    (ii) Homeostasis i.e. removal of damaged (non functional) cells to
    maintain normal state.
    (iii) Surveillance i.e. recognition and destruction of mutant cells.
  3. Define immunology.
    Ans. Study of organisation and function of the immune system.


  1. Name the two categories of immune cells.
    Ans.  (i) Central or primary lymphoid organs.
    (ii) Peripheral or secondary lymphoid organs.
  2. Name the organ found in birds where B-cells are produced. in Biology
    Ans. Bursa of Fabricius.
  3. Write the two main functions of B-cells.
    Ans. Main functions of B-cells:
    (i) Initiate antibody mediated-immune response.
    (ii) Transform into plasma cells which secrete antibodies.
  4. Name the cells responsible for synthesis of antibodies.- Plasma cells/B-cells
  5. What is the function of T-helper cells?
    Ans. Promote response by B-cells resulting in antibody production and also activate other T-cells.


  1. Name the part of antigen which makes contact with antibody.- Epitope
  2. How many types of immunoglobulins are known? (Give only the number).- Five
  3. Name the immunoglobulin found in highest concentration.
    Ans. Immunoglobulin G
  4. Which type of immune response is responsible for the killing of cancer cells?
    Ans. Cell-mediated immune response


  1. Mention two physical barriers of the body.
    Ans.  (i) Skin
    (ii) Epithelial cell layer of respiratory system.
  2. Macrophages are found in large numbers in the following organs :
    Ans. (i) Lung
    (ii) Liver
    (iii) Spleen
  3. Give two examples of each of the following:
    (i) Killed organism vaccine – Typhoid vaccine, Pertussis vaccine.
    (ii) Live attenuated organism vaccine – BCG, Rubella vaccine.
    (iii) Toxoid vaccine – Diphtheria vaccine, Tetanus vaccine.


  1. Define the term immunity.
  2. What are the main defence mechanisms operating in our body?
  3. ‘Immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues and soluble factors’.
    Justify this statement.
  4. Describe the process of antibody production.
  5. List main functions of T-cells.
  6. Draw a schematic diagram of the structure of antibody.
  7. What are the main physical barriers of the body?
  8. Describe important features of phagocytic cells.
  9. Give one main difference between passively acquired immunity and actively acquired immunity.
  10. Define the process of attenuation.
  11. Name two toxoid vaccines.
  12. What do the following abbreviations mean?
    (i) BCG (ii) DPT (iii) MMR
  13. Define the term gene therapy. Under what condition does it become necessaryto opt for such a therapy ?
  14. What is meant by human somatic gene therapy? How does it differ from thegerm line gene therapy? Which of the two have been successful so far and why?
  15. Discuss in brief the different types of somatic gene therapy.
  16. Give the cause, symptoms and treatment of haemorrhagic dengue fever.
  17. Give full form of STD.
  18. Mention any two sympotms of syphilis.
  19. State the means by which we may prevent and cure gonorrhoea.
  20. What does the term AIDS stand for?
  21. Write four possible symptoms of AIDS.
  22. Mention three general points which may control sexually transmitted diseases.

NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans

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Himanshu Kumar

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