Respiration and Elimination of Nitrogenous Wastes : 12th Class Biology Q Ans Lesson 14 – NIOS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.1
- Define respiration
Ans. Stepwise oxidation of glucose resulting in release of energy.
- Name the two gases that are exchanged during respiration.
Ans. O2, CO2
- What is cutaneous respiration? Name one animal that undertakes cutaneous respiration.
Ans. Respiration by the skin; frog
- What is the colour of the blood of the earthworm? Name the pigment responsible for the colour.
Ans. Red, haemoglobin
- How is oxygen transported to the cells in the cockroach?
Ans. Directly through tracheoles
- Name the group of animals in which blood is not involved in gaseous exchange. – Insects
- How does trachea communicate with the exterior in cockroach?
Ans. Through spiracles
- Trace the path of air from the nostrils to the lungs in the human body.
Ans. Nostrils → pharynx → bronchi → bronchioles → lungs
- Name the part of the respiratory system where air is filtered, moistened and warmed in humans
Ans. Nasal cavity
- What is the function of the epiglottis in humans?
Ans. Prevent food from entering the trachea or food pipe
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.2
- What is breathing?
Ans. mechanism of taking in air and then giving it out
- What is the position of the diaphragm at the time of expiration?
Ans. relaxed and dome shaped
- What is the capacity of tidal volume? – 500 mL
- What is the maximum number of oxygen molecules with which haemoglobin can Plants and animals combine? – 4 molecules
- Name the blood vessel that takes oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. – Pulmonary vein
- What are the three forms in which carbon dioxide is transported by the blood?
Ans. (a) dissolved in plasma as carbon dioxide – 5%
(b) as carboxy carbamino haemoglobin in RBC – 20%
(c) as bicarbonate ions in RBC or plasma – 75%
- Name the vaccine used for prevention of TB.
Ans. Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)
- What is an occupational hazard.
Ans. Silicosis or asbestosis
- What is the difference between bronchitis and asthma?
Ans. Bronchitis is an infection of the bronchi and antibiotics can cure it whereas bronchial asthma is an allergic reaction.
- The alveoli of a heavy smoker were damaged, their surface area was reduced and elasticity was lost. What is the technical term for this condition.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.3
- Name the organ where urea is produced and the organ from where urea is excreted. – Liver, Kidney
- Which is the most toxic form of nitrogenous waste? Name an organism that excretes it.
Ans. Ammonia; amoeba and fresh water fishes
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.4
- In what form the cockroaches excrete their nitrogenous waste? What is its advantage for cockroach?
Ans. Uric acid; this is to prevent water loss as these animals need to conserve water
- Where do Malpighian tubules of cockroach open?
Ans. Malpighian tubules open at the junction of mid and hind gut
- List the parts of human excretory system and their functions.
Ans. Kidney – filters nitrogenous wastes, excess of water and salt
Ureters – transport urine to the bladder
Urinary bladder – temporary storage of urine
Urethra – drains urine outside the body
- Name the functional unit of kidney and its parts.
Ans. Nephron, consisting of renal corpuscles made up of Bowman’s capsules and glomerulus, PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct
- List the substances that are filtered out during ultrafiltration
Ans. Water, amino acid, glucose, urea, uric acid, minerals, vitamins.
- What are the substances reabsorbed by the nephron?
Ans. Water, glucose, some salts, amino acid and small quantity of urea and uricacid.
- What is the importance of tubular secretion?
Ans. Direct elimination of certain minerals can take place such as ammonia andpotassium.
- Under which situation are the following present?
(a) Glucose in the urine – Diabetes mellitus
(b) Uric acid crystals – Gout
- What is the normal volume of urine excreted per day?
Ans. 1200 to 1500 mL
- What will happen if JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus) stops secreting the enzymerenin?
Ans. Blood Pressure will remain abnormally low.
- Name a hormone, which is a polypeptide in nature and secreted by the heart muscles and is also a vasodilator.
Ans. Antinatriuretic factor.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.5
- Name the organ where urea is formed. – Liver
- Why is cellophane used in haemodialysis?
Ans. Cellophane is impermeable to macromolecules like plasma proteins andblood corpuscles
- What is the composition of dialyzing fluid?
Ans. It contains some minerals and solutes like those in plasma but no ureaand uric acid is present.
- From which type of blood vessel artery or vein, is the blood taken out for dialysis?
- When is kidney transplantation advised?
Ans. When kidney failure cannot be treated.
- How is bile pigment removed from our body?
Ans. Bile pigments are removed along with bile via the digestive tract.
- List the major steps that are involved with respiration in humans.
- How is oxygen transported in earthworm?
- Name the respiratory pigment in earthworm.
- What is the role of carbonic anhydrase in the transport of carbon dioxide in ourbody?
- Which part of our respiratory system is known as the voice box?
- Where are respiratory centres situated in our brain?
- Name one nitrogenous waste removed by the kidney. Plants and animals
- Name the hormone the absence of which will result in excretion of hypotonicurine.
- What is the role of cellophane in dialysis?
- Why is inspiration said to be an active phase and expiration as passive phase?
- Differentiate between
(a) Breathing and respiration
(b) Inspiration and expiration
- List the special features of alveoli that enable easy gaseous exchange.
- What is vital capacity, tidal volume and residual volume?
- Give reasons for the following :
(a) Exchange of gases at the alveolar surface continues even during expiration.
(b) Trachea and bronchi do not collapse when air pressure decreases insidethem.
- Draw the excretory system of human and label the parts.
- Draw the structure of a nephron and label the parts.
- What is the cause and symptoms of pneumonia and TB?
- What is the role of liver in excretion?
- Explain how nitrogenous wastes are removed from the body of cockroach.
- How does ultrafiltration and reabsorption occur in nephrons?
- Explain how gaseous exchange takes place in the lungs.
- How is oxygen transported from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs?
- How is (a)Water balance, and (b) Salt balance maintained by kidney?
- List the parts of human respiratory system in correct sequence and state theirfunctions.
- List three characteristics of our lungs which make them suitable as respiratory surface
NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans
- Origin and Evolution of Life & Classification : 12th Class Biology Notes – NIOS
- The Kingdoms Monera, Protista & Fungi : 12th Class Biology Notes – NIOS
- Kingdoms Plantae & Animalia : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 3 – NIOS
- Cell Structure & Function : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 4 – NIOS
- Tissues & Others Level of Organization : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 5 – NIOS
- Root System : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 6 – NIOS
- Shoot System : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 7 – NIOS
- Absorption, Transport & Water Loss (Transpiration) in Plants : 12th Class Biology Q Ans Lesson 8 – NIOS
- Nutrition in Plants – Mineral Nutrition : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 9 – NIOS
- Nitrogen Metabolism : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 10 – NIOS
- Photosynthesis : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 11 – NIOS
- Respiration in Plants : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 12 – NIOS
- Nutrition and Digestion : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 13 – NIOS
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