Shoot System : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 7 – NIOS

Shoot System : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 7 – NIOS

Shoot System : 12th Class Biology Question Answer Lesson 7 - NIOS


  1. Name the part of plant which bears nodes, leaves and flowers.
    Ans. Stem
  2. Lateral branch develops from which bud?
    Ans. Axillary bud
  3. Why is it difficult to break lateral roots and not lateral branches on stem?
    Ans. Because lateral roots originate from inner layer, that is, pericycle
    (endogenous origin)

  4. Roots are negatively phototropic and positively geotropic, what pattern ofgrowth does the stem show?
    Ans. Stem is positively phototropic and negatively geotropic


  1. Name the meristematic zone in which cells divide in all planes.- Corpus
  2. From which meristematic layer does the vascular tissue develops?- Procambium
  3. Which structure gives rise to a lateral branch? Name the type of its origin.- Axillary bud, exogenous
  4. What is the structure known as which covers the apical meristem of root butis absent in stem?- Root cap


  1. What are plants with weak stem trailing on the ground known as?- Creeper
  2. Name the modification to which Runner, Stolon, Offset and Sucker belong.- Sub-aerial
  3. What is a phylloclade with one or two internodes called?- Cladode
  4. ‘Haldi’ and onion belong to which category of stem modification respectively?- Rhizome, Bulb
  5. Match the items of column A with those of column B
    A B
    (a) Tendril (i) Protection
    (b) Sucker (ii) Perennation
    (c) Thorns (iii) Reproduction
    (d) Bulb (iv) Photosynthesis
    (e) Phylloclade (v) Climbing
    Ans. (a) – (v) (b) – (iii) (c) – (i) (d) – (ii) (e) – (iv)


  1. Give one primary function of stem.
    Ans. Conduction of water and minerals from root to leaf and manufactured foodfrom leaf to other parts of plant
  2. How does sugarcane plant multiply?
    Ans. Stem Cuttings
  3. Match the following in column A with column B
    A B
    (a) Opuntia (i) Conduction
    (b) Duranta (ii) Storage of food
    (c) Ginger (iii) Photosynthesis
    (d) Potato (iv) Perennation
    (e) Stem (v) Protection
    Ans. (a) – (iii) (b) – (v) (c) – (iv) (d) – (ii) (e) – (i)


  1. Differentiate between conjoint and collateral vascular bundle.
    Ans. Conjoint is when xylem and phloem are together in one bundle, collateralis when xylem and phloem are on the same radius
  2. What is the region between two vascular bundles in a dicot stem known as?
    Ans. Medullary ray
  3. Where will you find radially arranged vascular bundles with exarch xylem?
    Ans. Root
  4. If you want to study the internal structure of a monocot and a dicot stem, name Plants and animals the plants you would select for the study.
    Ans. Maize stem for monocot and sunflower for dicot stem


  1. Name the two lateral meristems which ‘are responsible for increase in girth ofstem.
    Ans. Cork cambium (phellogen) and vascular cambium
  2. From which region does the interfascicular cambium develop?
    Ans. Medullary ray parenchyma
  3. Define bark.
    Ans. All the tissues outside the functional cork cambium is called bark
  4. Why are lenticels, non suberized?
    Ans. For gaseous exchange in branches
  5. The stems of grasses, and rice, remain weak and thin, why?
  6. Which layers constitute the periderm? What is it’s function?
    Ans. Phellem, Phellogen, Phelloderm, Protection


  1. Which type of wood is formed when the cambium is less active?
    Ans. Late or summer wood
  2. How can you determine the age of a tree?
    Ans. By counting the annual rings
  3. Why is heart wood commercially more valuable?
    Ans. Durable, resistant to attack of pathogen
  4. Why does a tall tree stand erect even in strong wind and lashing rain? Plants and animals
    Ans. Presence of abundant mechanical tissue like sclerenchyma and secondary xylem
  5. Define wood.
    Ans. Wood is secondary xylem produced by the activity of vascular cambiumin dicot stem


  1. Define venation.
    Ans. Venation is the arrangement of veins and veinlets in lamina of leaf
  2. Differentiate between unicostate and multicostate venation.
    Ans. Unicostate has one strong midrib while multicostate has many strong veins
  3. What is the type of venation found in peepal and palm leaves?
    Ans. Reticulate, parallel
  4. Name the structure which arises in the axil of leaf
    Ans. Axillary bud
  5. What is the prominent vein called which is present in the middle of lamina andruns from base to apex?
    Ans. Midrib


  1. Name the structure to which the leaflets are attached in a compound leaf.
    Ans. Rachis
  2. What is the structure which helps you differentiate a leaf from a leaflet?
    Ans. Presence of axillary bud in leaf but not in leaflet
  3. What are the two types of compound leaves known as ?
    Ans. Pinnately and palmately compound leaf


  1. What is the type of phyllotaxy found in mango, ‘tulsi’ and guava plants?
    Ans. Alternate, opposite-decussate; opposite-superposed
  2. Match the following items of column A with those of column B Plants and animals
    A B
    (a) Pitcher (i) Photosynthesis
    (b) Spines (ii) Climbing
    (c) Phyllode (iii) Trapping insects
    (d) Tendril (iv) Protection
    Ans. (a) – (iii) (b) – (iv) (c) – (i) (d) – (ii)
  3. Give two examples of insectivorous plants.
    Ans. Pitcher plant; bladderwort
  4. Water chestnut shows two different types of leaves on the same plant, what issuch a condition known as?
    Ans. Heterophylly


  1. How is the mesophyll tissue of dicot leaf different from that of monocot leaf?What is it’s function?
    Ans. Mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy tissue in dicot leaf butcomposed of only spongy tissue in monocot leaf; photosynthesis
  2. Where are stomata located in a grass leaf?
    Ans. In both surfaces of leaf
  3. Name the structure through which plants growing in humid areas get rid ofexcess of water in liquid form.
    Ans. Hydathodes
  4. Match the following item of column A with that of column B
    A B
    (a) Bulliform cells (i) Protection
    (b) Transport of water and mineral salts (ii) Guttation
    (c) Stomata only on lower surface (iii) Monocot leaf
    (d) Hydathode (iv) Dicot leaf
    (e) Hair (v) Stomata
    (f) Exchange of gases (vi) Xylem
    Ans. (a) – (iii) (b) – (vi) (c) – (iv) (d) – (ii) (e) – (i)


  1. What is the collection of sepals and petals respectively known as?
    Ans. Calyx, Corolla
  2. Match the following items of column A with those of column B
    A B
    (a) Flower (i) China rose
    (b) Polycarpellary (ii) Pollination
    (c) Petals (iii) Reproductive organ
    (d) Monodelphous (iv) Many carpels
    (e) Carpel (v) Modified shoot
    Ans. (a) – (v) (b) – (iv) (c) – (ii) (d) – (i) (e) – (iii)
  3. Define placentation.
    Ans. Placentation is the manner in which placentae are distributed in the ovary
  4. Name the type of placentstion where ovary is many chambered and ovules arearranged on the central axis.
    Ans. Axile


  1. What is a cyamose inflorescence?
    Ans. When the main axis ends in a flower and the growth is limited
  2. Give one difference between Raceme and Spike.
    Ans. Flowers are stalked in raceme but sessile in spike
  3. Define inflorescence.
    Ans. Arrangement of flowers on floral axis
  4. Name the type of inflorescence found in sunflower and Fig.
    Ans. Capitulum, Hypanthodium


  1. Define Fruit.
    Ans. Fruit is a ripened ovary that develops after fertilization
  2. Give two examples of false fruits.
    Ans. Apple, pear
  3. What is the fruit wall known as which is formed by the ovary wall?
    Ans. Pericarp
  4. Give the names of three layers of pericarp of a fleshy fruit.
    Ans. Epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp
  5. Match the following of column A with that of column B
    A B
    (a) Apple (i) Berry
    (b) Hesperidium (ii) Mesocarp
    (c) Mango-edible part (iii) Endosperm
    (d) Coconut -edible Part (iv) Orange
    (e) Tomato (v) False Fruit
    Ans. (a) – (v) (b) – (iv) (c) – (ii) (d) – (iii) (e) – (i)


  1. Differentiate between
    (i) Dicot stem and monocot stem
    (ii) Root and stem
    (iii) Racemose and cymose inflorescence
    (iv) Stoma and hydathode
    (v) True fruit and false fruit
    (vi) Dicot and monocot leaf
  2. Explain the different types of underground modified stem?
  3. Explain the process of secondary growth in dicot stem.
  4. Draw and label the vertical section of dicot leaf.
  5. Define the following
    (a) Flower (b) Actinomorphic (c) Heterophylly
    (d) Phyllotaxy (e) Hypogynous (f) Parthenocarpic fruit
    (g) Venation.
  6. What is cork cambium? State its functions.
    7 Draw labelled diagrams of the following
    (a) Raceme and corymb inflorescence
    (b) Axile and parietal placentation
  7. What is a fruit? Enlist the various types of simple- fleshy fruits giving one
    example of each type.
  8. What are the edible parts of the following fruits
    (a) Mango (b) Orange (c) Apple
    (d) Banana (e) Coconut (f) Cashew nut
  9. Match the following of column A with that of column B
    A B
    (a) Tendril (i) Protection
    (b) Stolon (ii) Food, storage
    (c) Thorn (iii) Reproduction
    (d) Tuber (iv) Photosynthesis
    (e) Capitulum (v) Climbing
    (f) Phylloclade (vi) Sunflower
  10. Name the type of modification of an underground, non-green structure bearing
    nodes and internodes and ‘eyes’.
  11. If a section of stem shows scattered vascular bundles which are closed, have
    ‘Y’ shaped xylem and are surrounded by bundle sheath; what group of plant
    is it?
  12. What is the region ouside the phellogen known as?
  13. When the cambium is less active which type of wood does it produce?

NIOS 12th class biology Q Ans

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